Emerald is a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.[Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the 10 point Mohs scale of mineral hardness.Most emeralds are highly included, so their toughness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor.
Emeralds, like all colored gemstones, are graded using four basic parameters–the four Cs of Connoisseurship: Color, Cut, Clarity and Crystal. The last C, crystal, is simply a synonym for transparency, or what gemologists call diaphaneity. Before the 20th century, jewelers used the term water, as in "a gem of the finest water," to express the combination of two qualities: color and crystal. Normally, in the grading of colored gemstones, color is by far the most important criterion. However, in the grading of emeralds, crystal is considered a close second. Both are necessary conditions. A fine emerald must possess not only a pure verdant green hue as described below, but also a high degree of transparency to be considered a top gem.
In the 1960s, the American jewelry industry changed the definition of 'emerald' to include the green vanadium-bearing beryl as emerald. As a result, vanadium emeralds purchased as emeralds in the United States are not recognized as such in the UK and Europe. In America, the distinction between traditional emeralds and the new vanadium kind is often reflected in the use of terms such as 'Colombian Emerald.
Scientifically speaking, color is divided into three components: hue, saturation and tone. Emeralds occur in hues ranging from yellow-green to blue-green, with the primary hue necessarily being green. Yellow and blue are the normal secondary hues found in emeralds. Only gems that are medium to dark in tone are considered emerald; light-toned gems are known instead by the species name green beryl. The finest emerald are approximately 75% tone on a scale where 0% tone would be colorless and 100% would be opaque black. In addition, a fine stone should be well saturated, the hue of an emerald should be bright (vivid). Gray is the normal saturation modifier or mask found in emerald; a grayish-green hue is a dull green hue.
Emeralds are green by definition (the name is derived from the Greek word 'smaragdus', meaning green).Emeralds are the green variety of beryl, a mineral which comes in many other colors that are sometimes also used as gems, such as blue aquamarine, yellow heliodor, pink morganite and colorless goshenite.
Emerald tends to have numerous inclusions and surface breaking fissures. Unlike diamond, where the loupe standard, i.e. 10X magnification, is used to grade clarity, emerald is graded by eye. Thus, if an emerald has no visible inclusions to the eye (assuming normal visual acuity) it is considered flawless. Stones that lack surface breaking fissures are extremely rare and therefore almost all emeralds are treated, "oiled", to enhance the apparent clarity. Eye-clean stones of a vivid primary green hue (as described above) with no more than 15% of any secondary hue or combination (either blue or yellow) of a medium-dark tone command the highest prices. This relative crystal non-uniformity makes emeralds more likely than other gemstones to be cut into cabochons, rather than faceted shapes.
Most emeralds are oiled as part of the post lapidary process, in order to improve their clarity. Cedar oil, having a similar refractive index, is often used in this generally accepted practice. Other liquids, including synthetic oils and polymers with refractive indexes close to that of emerald such as Opticon are also used. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission requires the disclosure of this treatment when a treated emerald is sold. The use of oil is traditional and largely accepted by the gem trade. Other treatments, for example the use of green-tinted oil, are not acceptable in the trade. The laboratory community has recently standardized the language for grading the clarity of emeralds. Gems are graded on a four step scale; none, minor, moderate and highly enhanced. Note that these categories reflect levels of enhancement not clarity. A gem graded none on the enhancement scale may still exhibit visible inclusions. Laboratories tend to apply these criteria differently. Some gem labs consider the mere presence of oil or polymers to constitute enhancement. Others may ignore traces of oil if the presence of the material does not materially improve the look of the gemstone.
Given that the vast majority of all emeralds are treated as described above, and the fact that two stones that appear visually similar may actually be quite far apart in treatment level and therefore in value, a consumer considering a purchase of an expensive emerald is well advised to insist upon a treatment report from a reputable gemological laboratory. All other factors being equal, a high quality emerald with an enhancement level of moderate should cost half an identical stone graded none
Mystical and Healing Properties:
Emerald is a stone of love and romance. It brings and enhances joy, cleansing, clairvoyance, memory, and faith. It also benefits intuition and communication, and promotes truthfulness. Emerald is associated with the heart chakra.
The emerald is the sacred stone of the goddess Venus. It was thought to preserve love. The emerald has long been the symbol of hope. It is considered by many to be the stone of prophecy. For some the emerald acts as a tranquilizer for a troubled mind. The emerald is said to bring the wearer reason and wisdom. The strongest time for the powers of the emerald is said to be spring.
Lucky for love, give your lover an emerald to stay faithful.
In several cultures the emerald was the symbol for fertilizing rain. In the Christian faith it is the symbol of faith and hope.
Emeralds are known to heal both the physical heart as well as emotional love. They can help backaches when worn on the index finder of the left hand of a healer. A healer may use a ring while the patient lies on his stomach, the healer holding the ring about two inches above the backbone and create small circles, slowly up and down the spine.
A powerful high energy stone, the emerald strengthens the eyes, heart, immune and nervous systems.
The power of the Emerald is highest at the full moon. Some cultures thought the emerald would heal any disease of the eye. The emerald would be placed in a container of water overnight and the water would be poured on the eyes the next day.
Emerald is a stone of great harmony, wisdom and love. Giving your lover an Emerald will bring the lover closer if the giver's motives are pure love. The Emerald can be a bridge between 2 people. The Emerald vibrates with love.
Emerald is known as a tonic for the body as it aids in alignment of all the bodies. Extremely balancing for anyone seeking the truth. Emeralds are said to ward of negativity and to strengthen spiritual insight, and when used as a scrying stone can also foretell the future.
If you would like to bring love into your life, purchase an emerald, charge it with your magical need through visualization, perhaps by using a green candle as well. After the ritual wear or carry the stone somewhere near your heart, but do it in such a way that it can not be seen by others.
Emeralds have been used in spells and rituals for business to promote sales and increase public awareness of the firm. For best results for any magic use, as told and recorded by old magicians, the emerald is best set in silver or copper. An emerald set in a sterling silver ring, for one example is definitely an eye catching piece of jewelry, but the stone married with the metal will also help sensitize the wearer to intuitive ideas and psychic aid, particularly in the field of creative arts.
Traditional Birthstone for the Month of May.
Stone of Taurus, Gemini, Aries to dream of an emerald indicates worldly success and goodness, a time of great happiness where you have much to look forward to.